Suicide is the act of intentionally causing one’s own death.Mental disorders (including depression, bipolar disorder, autism spectrum disorders, schizophrenia, personality disorders, anxiety disorders), physical disorders (such as chronic fatigue syndrome) and substance use disorders (including alcohol use disorder and the use of and withdrawal from benzodiazepines) are risk factors.Some suicides are impulsive acts due to stress (such as from financial or academic difficulties), relationship problems (such as breakups or deaths of close ones), or harassment/bullying.Those who have previously attempted suicide are at a higher risk for future attempts.Effective suicide prevention efforts include limiting access to methods of suicide—such as firearms, drugs, and poisons; treating mental disorders and substance misuse; careful media reporting about suicide; and improving economic conditions.Even though crisis hotlines are common, they have not been well studied.
There is no known unifying uerlying pathophysiology for suicide.It is however believed to result from an interplay of behavioral, socio-economic and psychological factors.
Low levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are both directly associated with suicide and indirectly associated through its role in major depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, schizophrenia and obsessive–compulsive disorder.Post-mortem studies have found reduced levels of BDNF in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, in those with and without psychiatric conditions.Serotonin, a brain neurotransmitter, is believed to be low in those who die by suicide.This is partly based on evidence of increased levels of 5-HT2A receptors found after death. Other evidence includes reduced levels of a breakdown product of serotonin, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, in the cerebral spinal fluid.Direct evidence is however hard to gather. Epigenetics, the study of changes in genetic expression in response to environmental factors which do not alter the underlying DNA, is also believed to pla
In ancient Athens, a person who died by suicide without the approval of the state was denied the honors of a normal burial. The person would be buried alone, on the outskirts of the city, without a headstone or marker. However, it was deemed to be an acceptable method to deal with military defeat. In Ancient Rome, while suicide was initially permitted, it was later deemed a crime against the state due to its economic costs.Aristotle condemned all forms of suicide while Plato was ambivalent. In Rome, some reasons for suicide included volunteering death in a gladiator combat, guilt over murdering someone, to save the life of another, as a result of mourning, from shame from being raped, and as an escape from intolerable situations like physical suffering, military defeat, or criminal pursuit.
The most commonly used method of suicide varies between countries, and is partly related to the availability of effective means. Common methods of suicide include hanging, pesticide poisoning, and firearms.Suicides resulted in 828,000 global deaths in 2015, an increase from 712,000 deaths in 1990.[inconsistent] This makes suicide the 10th leading cause of death worldwide.
Approximately 1.5% of all deaths worldwide are by suicide.In a given year, this is roughly 12 per 100,000 people. Rates of completed suicides are generally higher among men than among women, ranging from 1.5 times as much in the developing world to 3.5 times in the developed world.Suicide is generally most common among those over the age of 70; however, in certain countries, those aged between 15 and 30 are at the highest risk. Europe had the highest rates of suicide by region in 2015. There are an estimated 10 to 20 million non-fatal attempted suicides every year. Non-fatal suicide attempts may lead to injury and long-term disabilities. In the Western world, attempts are more common among young people and among females.
Views on suicide have been influenced by broad existential themes such as religion, honor, and the meaning of life.The Abrahamic religions traditionally consider suicide as an offense towards God, due to the belief in the sanctity of life. During the samurai era in Japan, a form of suicide known as seppuku (腹切り, harakiri) was respected as a means of making up for failure or as a form of protest. Sati, a practice outlawed by the British, expected the Indian widow to kill herself on her husband’s funeral fire, either willingly or under pressure from her family and society.Suicide and attempted suicide, while previously illegal, are no longer so in most Western countries.It remains a criminal offense in some countries.In the 20th and 21st centuries, suicide has been used on rare occasions as a form of protest, and kamikaze and suicide bombings have been used as a military or terrorist tactic. Suicide is often seen as a major catastrophe for families, relatives and other nearby supporters, and it is viewed negatively almost everywhere around the world.
By the 19th century, the act of suicide had shifted from being viewed as caused by sin to being caused by insanity in Europe. Although suicide remained illegal during this period, it increasingly became the target of satirical comments, such as the Gilbert and Sullivan comic opera The Mikado, that satirized the idea of executing someone who had already killed himself.
No country in Europe currently considers suicide or attempted suicide to be a crime.u It was, however, in most Western European countries from the Middle Ages until at least the 1800s.The Netherlands was the first country to legalize both physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia, which took effect in 2002, although only doctors are allowed to assist in either of them, and have to follow a protocol prescribed by Dutch law.If such protocol is not followed, it is an offence punishable by law. In Germany, active euthanasia is illegal and anyone present during suicide may be prosecuted for failure to render aid in an emergency.Switzerland has taken steps to legalize assisted suicide for the chronically mentally ill. The high court in Lausanne, Switzerland, in a 2006 ruling, granted an anonymous individual with longstanding psychiatric difficulties the right to end his own life.England and Wales decriminalized suicide via the Suicide Act 1961 and the Republic of Ireland in 1993.The word “commit” was used in reference to its being illegal, however many organisations have stopped it because of the negative connotation.
In the United States, suicide is not illegal but may be associated with penalties for those who attempt it.Physician-assisted suicide is legal in the state of Washington for people with terminal diseases. In Oregon, people with terminal diseases may request medications to help end their life.Canadians who have attempted suicide may be barred from entering the United States. U.S. laws allow border guards to deny access to people who have a mental illness, including those with previous suicide attemp
Australia, suicide is not a crime.It however is a crime to counsel, incite, or aid and abet another in attempting to die by suicide, and the law explicitly allows any person to use “such force as may reasonably be necessary” to prevent another from taking their own life.The Northern Territory of Australia briefly had legal physician-assisted suicide from 1996 to 1997.
In India, suicide used to be illegal and surviving family could face legal difficulties.The Indian government repealed this law in 2014.It remains a criminal offense in most Muslim-majority nations.
philosophy of suicide, including what constitutes suicide, whether or not suicide can be a rational choice, and the moral permissibility of suicide.Arguments as to acceptability of suicide in moral or social terms range from the position that the act is inherently immoral and unacceptable under any circumstances, to a regard for suicide as a sacrosanct right of anyone who believes they have rationally and conscientiously come to the decision to end their own lives, even if they are young and healthy.
Opponents to suicide include philosophers such as Augustine of Hippo, Thomas Aquinas,Immanuel Kant and, arguably, John Stuart Mill – Mill’s focus on the importance of liberty and autonomy meant that he rejected choices which would prevent a person from making future autonomous decisions. Others view suicide as a legitimate matter of personal choice. Supporters of this position maintain that no one should be forced to suffer against their will, particularly from conditions such as incurable disease, mental illness, and old age, with no possibility of improvement. They reject the belief that suicide is always irrational, arguing instead that it can be a valid last resort for those enduring major pain or trauma.
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